Chapter 9

Chapter 9

SUBCHAPTER IX. POST-TRIAL PROCEDURE and REVIEW of COURTS-MARTIAL

Section Article
859.59. Error of law; lesser included offense.
860.60. Action by the convening authority.
861.61. Waiver or withdrawal of appeal.
862.62. Appeal by the United States.
863.63. Rehearings.
864.64. Review by a judge advocate.
865.65. Disposition of records.
866.66. Review by Court of Military Review.
867.67. Review by the Court of Military Appeals.
*867a.67a. Review by the Supreme Court.
868.68. Branch offices.
869.69. Review in the office of the Judge Advocate
GENERAL
870.70. Appellate counsel.
871.71. Execution of sentence; suspension of sentence.
872.72. Vacation of suspension.
873.73. Petition for a new trial.
874.74. Remission and suspension.
875.75. Restoration.
876.76. Finality of proceedings, findings, and sentences.
876a.76a. Leave required to be taken pending review of certain court-martial convictions.

859. ART. 59. ERROR OF LAW; LESSER INCLUDED OFFENSE
  1. A finding or sentence of court-martial may not be held incorrect on the ground of an error of law unless the error materially prejudices the substantial rights of the accused.
  2. Any reviewing authority with the power to approve or affirm a finding of guilty may approve or affirm, instead, so much of the finding as includes a lesser included offense
860. ART. 60. ACTION BY THE CONVENING AUTHORITY
  1. the findings and sentence of a court-martial shall be reported promptly to the convening authority after the announcement of the sentence.
    1. the accused may submit to the convening authority matters for consideration by the convening authority with respect to the findings and the sentence. Except in a summary court-martial case, such a submission shall be made within 10 days after the accused has been given an authenticated record of trial and, if applicable, the recommendation of the staff judge advocate or legal officer under subsection (d). In a summary court-martial case, such submission shall be made within seven days after the sentence is announced.
    2. If the accused shows that additional time is required for the accused to submit such matters, the convening authority or other person taking action under this section, for good cause, may extend the applicable period under paragraph (1) for not more than an additional 20 days.
    3. In a summary court-martial case, the accused shall be promptly provided a copy of the record of trial for use in preparing a submission authorized by paragraph (1).
    4. The accused may waive his right to make a submission to the convening authority under paragraph (1). Such a waiver must be made in writing and may not be revoked. For the purposes of subsection (c)(2), the time within which the accused may make a submission under this subsection shall be deemed to have expired upon the submission of such a waiver to the convening authority.
    1. The authority under this section to modify the findings and sentence of a court-martial is a matter of command prerogative involving the sole discretion of the convening authority. Under regulations of the Secretary concerned, a commissioned officer commanding for the time being, a successor in command, or any person exercising general court-martial jurisdiction may act under this section in place of the convening authority.
    2. Action on the sentence of a court-martial shall be taken by the convening authority or by another person authorized to act under this section. Subject to regulations of the Secretary concerned, such action may be taken only after consideration of any matters submitted by the accused under subsection (b) or after the time for submitting such matters expires, whichever is earlier. The convening authority or other person taking such action, in his sole discretion, may approve, disapprove, commute, or suspend the sentence in whole or in part.
    3. Action on the findings of a court-martial by the convening authority or other person acting on the sentence is not required. However, such person, in his sole discretion, may
      1. dismiss any charge or specification by setting aside a finding of guilty thereto; or
      2. change a finding of guilty to a charge or specification to a finding of guilty to an offense that is a lesser included offense of the offense stated in the charge or specification.
    4. Before acting under this section on any general court-martial case or any special court-martial case that includes a bad-conduct discharge, the convening authority or other person taking action under this section shall obtain and consider the written recommendation of his staff judge advocate or legal officer. The convening authority or other person taking action under this section shall refer the record of trial to his staff judge advocate or legal officer, and the staff judge advocate or legal officer shall use such record in the preparation of his recommendation. The recommendation of the staff judge advocate or legal officer shall include such matters as the President may prescribe by regulation and shall be served on the accused, who may submit any matter in response under subsection (b). Failure to object in the response to the recommendation or to any matter attached to the recommendation waives the right to object thereto.
      1. The convening authority or other person taking action under this section, in his sole discretion, may order a proceeding in revision or a rehearing.
      2. A proceeding in revision may be ordered if there is an apparent error or omission in the record or if the record shows improper or inconsistent action by a court-martial with respect to the findings or sentence that can be rectified without material prejudice to the substantial rights of the accused. In no case, however, may a proceeding in revision
        1. reconsider a finding of not guilty of any specification or a ruling which amounts to a finding of not guilty;
        2. reconsider a finding of not guilty of any charge, unless there has been a finding of guilty under a specification laid under that charge, which sufficiently alleges a violation of some article of this chapter; or
        3. increase the severity of some article of the sentence unless the sentence prescribed for the offense is mandatory.
      3. A rehearing may be ordered by the convening authority or other person taking action under this section if he disapproves the findings and sentence and states the reasons for disapproval of the findings. If such a person disapproves the findings and sentence and does not order a rehearing, he shall dismiss the charges. A rehearing as to the findings may not be ordered where there is a lack of sufficient evidence in the record to support the findings. A rehearing as to the sentence may be ordered if the convening authority or other person taken action under this subsection disapproves the sentence.
861. WAIVER OR WITHDRAWAL OF APPEAL
  1. In each case subject to appellate review under section 866 or 869(a) of this title (article 66 or 69(a)), except a case in which the sentence as approved under section 860(c) of this title convening authority a statement expressly waving the right of the accuse d to such review. Such a waiver shall be signed by both the accused and by defense counsel and must be filed within 10 days after the action under sections 860(c) of this title (article 60(c)) is served on the accused or on defense counsel.
    1. the convening authority or other person taking such action, for good cause, may extend the period for such filing by not more than 30 days.
    2. Except in a case in which the sentence as approved under section 860(c)of this title (article 60(c)) includes death, the accused may ithdraw an appeal at any time.
    3. A waiver of the right to appellate review or the withdrawal of an appeal under this section bars review under section 866 or 869(a) of this title (article 66 or 69(a)).
862. ART. 62. APPEAL BY THE UNITED STATES
    1. In a trial by court-martial in which a military judge presides and in which a punitive discharge may be adjudged, the United States may appeal an order or ruling of the military judge which terminates the proceedings with respect to a charge or specifications or which excludes evidence that is substantial proof of a fact material in the proceeding. However, the United States may not appeal an order or ruling that is, or amounts to, a finding of not guilty with respect to the charge or specification.
      1. An appeal of an order or ruling may not be taken unless the trial counsel provides the military judge with written notice of appeal from the order or ruling within 72 hours of the order or ruling. Such notice shall include a certification by the
      2. An appeal under this section shall be forwarded by means prescribed under regulations of the President directly to the Court of Military Review and shall, whenever practicable, have priority over all other proceedings before that court. In ruling on an appeal under this section, the Court of Military review may act only with respect to matters of law, notwithstanding section 866(c) of this title (article 66(c)).
      3. Any period of delay resulting from an appeal under this section shall be excluded in deciding any issue regarding denial of a speedy trial unless an appropriate authority determines that the appeal was filed solely for the purpose of delay with the knowledge that it was totally frivolous and without merit.
863. ART. 63. REHEARINGS
  1. Each rehearing under this chapter shall take place before a court-martial composed of members not members of the court-martial which first heard the case. Upon a rehearing the accused may not be tried for any offense of which he was found not guilty by the first court-martial, and no sentence in excess of or more than the original sentence may be imposed unless the sentence is based upon a finding of guilty of an offense not considered upon the merits in the original proceedings, or unless the sentence prescribed for the offense is mandatory. If the sentence approved after the first court-martial was in accordance with a pretrial agreement and the accused at the rehearing changes his plea with respect to the charges or specifications upon which the pretrial agreement was based, or otherwise does not comply with pretrial agreement, the sentence as to those charges or specifications may include any punishment not in excess of that lawfully adjudged at the first court-martial.
864. ART. 64. REVIEW BY A JUDGE ADVOCATE
  1. Each case in which there has been a finding of guilty that is not reviewed under section 866 or 869(a) of this title (article 66 or 69(a)) shall be reviewed by a judge advocate under regulations of the Secretary concerned. A judge advocate may not review a case under this subsection if he has acted in the same case as an accuser, investigating officer, member of the court, military judge, or counsel or has otherwise acted on behalf of the prosecution or defense. The judge advocate's review shall be in writing and shall contain the following:
    1. Conclusions at to whether
      1. the court had jurisdiction over the accused and the offense;
      2. the charge and specification stated an offense; and
      3. the sentence was within the limits prescribed as a matter of
    2. A response to each allegation of error made in writing by the accused.
    3. If the case is sent for action under subsection (b), a recommendation as to the appropriate action to be taken and an opinion as to whether corrective action is required as a matter of law.
  2. The record of trial and related documents in each case reviewed under subsection (a) shall be sent for action to the person exercising general court-martial jurisdiction over the accused at the time the court was convened (or to that person's successor in command) if
    1. the judge advocate who reviewed the case recommends corrective action;
    2. the sentence approved under section 860(c) of this title (article 60(c)) extends to dismissal, a bad-conduct or dishonorable discharge, or confinement for more than six months; or
    3. such action is otherwise required by regulations of the Secretary concerned.
    1. The person to whom the record of trial and related documents are sent under subsection (b) may
      1. disapprove or approve the findings or sentence, in whole or in part;
      2. remit, commute, or suspend the sentence in whole or in part;
      3. except where the evidence was insufficient at the trial to support the findings, order a rehearing on the findings, on the sentence, or on both; or
      4. dismiss the charges.
    2. If a rehearing is ordered by the convening authority finds a rehearing impracticable, he shall dismiss the charges.
    3. If the opinion of the judge advocate in the judge advocate's review under subsection (a) is that corrective action is required as a matter of law and if the person required to take action under subsection (b) does not take action that is at least as favorable to the accused as that recommended by the judge advocate, the record of trial and action thereon shall be sent to Judge Advocate General for review under section 869(b) of this title (article 69(b)).
865. ART. 65. DISPOSITION OF RECORDS
  1. In a case subject to appellate review under section 866 or 869(a) of this title (article 66 or 69(a)) in which the right to such review is not waived, or an appeal is not withdrawn, under section 861 of this title (article 61), the record of trial and action thereon shall be transmitted to the Judge General for appropriate action.
  2. Except as otherwise required by this chapter, all other records of trial and related documents shall be transmitted and disposed of as the Secretary may prescribe by regulation.
866. ART. 66. REVIEW BY COURT OF MILITARY REVIEW
  1. Each Judge Advocate General shall establish a Court of Military Review which shall be composed of one or more panels, and each such panel shall be composed of not less than three appellate military judges. For the purpose of reviewing court-martial cases, the court may sit in panels or as a whole in accordance with rules prescribed under subsection (f). Any decision of a panel bay be reconsidered by the court sitting as a whole in accordance with such rules. Appellate military judges who are assigned to a Court of Military Review may be commissioned officers or civilians, each of whom must be a member of a bar of a Federal court or the highest court of a State. The Judge Advocate General shall designate as trial counsel that appeal is not taken for the purpose of delay and (if the order or ruling appealed is one which excludes evidence) that the evidence is substantial proof of a fact material in the proceeding. (3) An appeal under this section shall be diligently prosecuted by appellate Government counsel
  2. An appeal under this section shall be forwarded by a means prescribed under regulations of the President directly to the Court of Military Review and shall, whenever practicable, have priority over all other proceedings before that court. In ruling on an appeal under this section, the Court of Military Review may act only with respect to matters of law, notwithstanding section 666(c) of this title (article 66(c)).
  3. Any period of delay resulting from an appeal under this section shall be excluded in deciding any issue regarding denial of a speedy trial unless an appropriate authority determines that the appeal was filed solely for the purposed of delay with the knowledge that it was totally frivolous and without merit.
* 867. ART. 67. REVIEW BY THE COURT OF MILITARY APPEALS
  1. The Court of Military Appeals shall review the record in
    1. all cases in which the sentence, as affirmed by a Court of Military Review, extends to death;
    2. all cases reviewed by a Court of Military Review which the Judge Advocate General orders sent to the Court of Military Appeals for review; and
    3. all cases reviewed by a Court of Military Review in which, upon petition of the accused and on good cause shown, the Court of Military Appeals has granted review.
  2. the accused may petition the Court of Military Appeals for review of a decision of a court of Military Review within 60 days from the earlier of;
    1. the date on which the accused is notified of the decision of the Court of Military Review; or
    2. the date on which a copy of the decision of the Court of Military Review, after being served on appellate counsel of record fro the accused (if any), is deposited in the United States mails for delivery by first class mail to the accused at an address provided by the accused, or, if no such address has been provided by the accused, at the last address listed for the accused in his official service record. The Court of Military Appeals shall act upon such a petition promptly in accordance with the rules of the court.
  3. In any case reviewed by it, the Court of Military Appeals may act only with respect to the findings and sentence as approved by the convening authority and as affirmed or set aside as incorrect in law by the Court of Military Review. In a case which the Judge Advocate General orders sent to the Court of Military Appeals, that action need be taken only with respect to the issues raised by him. In a case reviewed upon petition of the accused, that action need be taken only with respect to issues specified in the grant of review. The Court of Military Appeals shall take action only with respect to matters of law.
  4. If the Court of Military Appeals sets aside the findings and sentence, it may, except where the setting aside is based on lack of sufficient evidence in the record to support the findings, order a rehearing. If it sets aside the findings and sentence and does not order a rehearing, it shall order that the charges be dismissed.
  5. After it has acted on a case, the Court of Military Appeals may direct the Judge Advocate General to return the record to the Court of Military Review for further review in accordance with the decision of the Court. Otherwise, unless there is to be further action by the President or the Secretary concerned, the Judge Advocate General shall instruct the convening authority to take action in accordance with that decision. If the court has ordered a rehearing, but the convening authority finds a rehearing impracticable, he may dismiss the charges.
* 867a. ART. 67a. REVIEW BY THE SUPREME COURT
  1. Decisions of the Unites States Court of Military Appeals are subject to review by the Supreme Court by writ of certiorari as provided in section 1259 of title 28. The Supreme Court may not review by a writ of certiorari under this section any action of the Court of Military Appeals in refusing to grant a petition for review.
  2. The accused may petition the Supreme Court for a writ of certiorari without prepayment of fees and costs or security therefor and without filing the affidavit required by section 1915(a) of title 28.
868. ART. 68. BRANCH OFFICES
  1. The Secretary concerned may direct the Judge Advocate General to establish a branch office with any command. The branch office shall be under an Assistant Judge Advocate General who, with the consent of the judge Advocate General, may establish a Court of Military Review with one or more panels. That Assistant Judge Advocate General and any Court of Military Review established by him may perform for that command under the general supervision of the Judge Advocate General, the respective duties which the Judge Advocate General and a Court of Military Review established by the Judge Advocate General would otherwise be required to perform as to all cases involving sentences not requiring approval by the President.
869. ART. 69. REVIEW IN THE OFFICE OF THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL
  1. The record of trial in each general court-martial that is not otherwise reviewed under section 866 of this title (article 66) shall be examined in the office of the Judge Advocate General if there is a finding of guilty and the accused does not waive or withdraw his right to appellate review under section 861 of this title (article 61). If any part of the findings or sentence is found to be unsupported in law or if reassessment of the sentence is appropriate, the Judge Advocate General may modify or set aside the findings of sentence or both.
  2. The findings or sentence, or both, in a court-martial case not reviewed under subsection (a) or under section 866 of this title (article 66) may be modified or set aside, in whole or in part, by the Judge Advocate General on the ground of newly discovered evidence, fraud on the court, lack of jurisdiction over the accused or the offense, error prejudicial to the substantial rights of the accused, or the appropriateness of the sentence. If such a case is considered upon application of the accused, the application must be filed in the office of the Judge Advocate General by the accused on or before the last day of the two-year period beginning on the date the sentence is approved under section 860(c) of this title (article 60(c)), unless the accused establishes good cause for failure to file within that time.
  3. If the Judge Advocate General sets aside the findings or sentence, he may, except when the setting aside is based on lace of sufficient evidence in the record to support the findings, order a rehearing. If he sets aside the findings and sentence and does not order a rehearing, he shall order that the charges be dismissed. If the Judge Advocate General orders a rehearing by the convening authority finds a rehearing impractical, the convening authority shall dismiss the charges.
  4. A Court of Military Review may review, under section 866 of this title (article 66)
    1. any court-martial case which
      1. is subject to action by the Judge Advocate General under this section, and
      2. is sent to the Court of Military Review by order of the Judge Advocate General; and,
    2. any action taken by the Judge Advocate General under this section in such case.
  5. Notwithstanding section 866 of this title (article 66), in any case reviewed by a Court of Military Review under this section, the Court may take action only with respect to matters of law.
870. ART. 70. APPELLATE COUNSEL
  1. The Judge Advocate General shall detail in his office one or more commissioned officers as appellate Government counsel, and one or more commissioned officers as appellate defense counsel, who are qualified under section 827(b)(1) of this title (article 27(b)(1)).
  2. Appellate Government counsel shall represent the United States before the Court of Military Review or the Court of Military Appeals when directed to do so by the judge Advocate General. Appellate Government counsel may represent the United States before the Supreme Court in cases arising under this chapter when requested to do so by the Attorney General.
  3. Appellate defense counsel shall represent the accused before the Court of Military Review, the Court of Military Appeals, or the Supreme Court
    1. when requested by the accused;
    2. when the United States is represented by counsel; or
    3. when the Judge Advocate General has sent the case to the Court of Military Appeals.
  4. The accused has the right to be represented before the Court of Military Review, the Court of Military Appeals, or the Supreme court by civilian counsel if provided by him.
  5. Military appellate counsel shall also perform such other functions in connection with the review of court-martial cases as the Judge Advocate General directs.
871. ART. 71. EXECUTION OF SENTENCE; SUSPENSION OF SENTENCE
  1. If the sentence of the court-martial extends to death, that part of the sentence providing for death may not be executed until approved by the President. In such a case, the President may commute, remit, or suspend the sentence, or any part thereof, as he sees fit. That part of the sentence providing for the death may not be suspended.
  2. If in the case of a commissioned officer, cadet, or midshipman, the sentence of a court-martial extends to dismissal, that part of the sentence providing for dismissal may not be executed until approved by the Secretary concerned or such Under Secretary of Assistant Secretary as may be designated by the Secretary concerned. In such a case, the Secretary, Under Secretary or Assistant t Secretary, as the case may be, may commute, remit, or suspend the sentence, or any part of the sentence, as he sees fit. In time of war or national emergency he may commute a sentence of dismissal to reduction to any enlisted grade. A person so reduced may be required to serve for the duration of the war or emergency and six months thereafter.
    1. If a sentence extends to death, dismissal, or dishonorable or bad-conduct discharge and if the right of the accused to appellate review is not waived, and an appeal is not withdrawn, under section 861 of this title (article 61), that part of the sentence extending to death, dismissal, or a dishonorable or bad-conduct discharge may not be executed until there is a final judgment as to the legality of the proceedings (and with respect to death or dismissal, approval under subsection (a) or (b), as appropriate). A judgment as to legality of the proceedings is final in such cases when review is completed by a Court of Military Review and
      1. the time for the accused to file a petition for review by the Court of Military Appeals has expired and the accused has not filed a timely petition for such review and the case is not otherwise under review by that Court;
      2. such a petition is rejected by the Court of Military Appeals; or
      3. review is completed in accordance with the judgment of the Court of Military Appeals and
        1. a petition for a writ of certiorari is not filed within the time limits prescribed by the Supreme Court;
        2. such a petition is rejected by the Supreme Court; or
        3. review is otherwise completed in accordance with the judgment of the Supreme Court.
    2. If a sentence extends to dismissal or a dishonorable or bad-conduct discharge and if the right of the accused to appellate review is waived, or an appeal is withdrawn, under section 861 of this title (article 61), that part of the sentence extending to dismissal or a bad-conduct discharge may not be executed until review of the case by a judge advocate (and any action of that review) under section 864 of this title (article 64) is completed. Any other part of a court-martial sentence may be ordered executed by the convening authority or other person acting on the case under section 860 of this title (article 60) when approved by hum under that section.
  3. The convening authority or other person acting on the case under section 860 of this title (article 60) may suspend the execution of any sentence or part thereof, except a death sentence.
872. ART. 72. VACATION OF SUSPENSION
  1. Before the vacation of the suspension of a special court-martial sentence which as approved includes a bad-conduct discharge, or of any general court-martial sentence, the officer having special court-martial jurisdiction over the probationer shall hold a hearing on the alleged violation of probation. The probationer shall be represented at the hearing by counsel if he so desires.
  2. The record of the hearing and the recommendation of the officer having special court-martial jurisdiction shall be sent for action to the officer exercising general court-martial jurisdiction over the probationer. If he vacates the suspension, any unexecuted part of the sentence, except a dismissal, shall be executed, subject to applicable restrictions in section 871(c) of this title (article 71(c)). The vacation of the suspension of a dismissal is not effective until approved by the Secretary concerned.
  3. The suspension of nay other sentence may be vacated by any authority competent to convene, for the command in which the accused is serving or assigned, a court of the kind that imposed the sentence.
873. ART. 73. PETITION FOR A NEW TRIAL
  1. At any time within two years after approval by the convening authority of a court-martial sentence, the accused may petition the Judge Advocate General for a new trial on the grounds of newly discovered evidence or fraud on the court. If the accused's case is pending before a Court of Military Review or before the Court of Military Appeals, the Judge Advocate General shall refer the petition to the appropriate court for action. Otherwise the Judge Advocate General shall act upon the petition.
874. ART. 74. REMISSION AND SUSPENSION
  1. The secretary concerned and, when designated by him, any Under Secretary, Assistant Secretary, Judge Advocate General, or commanding officer may remit or suspend any part or amount of the unexecuted part of any sentence, including all uncollected forfeitures other than a sentence prescribed by the President.
  2. The Secretary concerned may, for good cause, substitute an administrative form of discharge for a discharge or dismissal executed in accordance with the sentence of a court-martial.
875. ART. 75. RESTORATION
  1. Under such regulations as the President may prescribe, all rights, privileges, and property affected by an executed part of a court-martial sentence which has been set aside or disapproved, except an executed dismissal or discharge, shall be restored unless a new trial or rehearing is ordered and such executed part is included in a sentence imposed upon the new trial or rehearing.
  2. If a previously executed sentence of dishonorable or bad-conduct discharge is not imposed on a new trial, the Secretary concerned shall substitute therefor a form of discharge authorized for administrative issuance unless the accused is to serve out the remainder of this enlistment.
  3. If a previously executed sentence of dismissal in not imposed on a new trial, the Secretary concerned shall substitute therefor a form of discharge authorized for administrative issue, and the commissioned officer dismissed by the sentence may be re-appointed by the President alone to such commissioned grade and with such rank as in the opinion of the President that former officer would have attained had he not been dismissed. The reappointment of such a former officer shall be without regard to the existence of a vacancy and shall affect the promotion status of other officers only insofar as the President may direct. All time between the dismissal and reappointment shall be considered as actual service for all purposes, including the right to pay and allowances.
876. ART. 76. FINALITY OF PROCEEDINGS, FINDINGS, AND SENTENCES
  1. The appellate review of records of trial provided by this chapter, the proceedings, findings, and sentences of courts-martial as approved, reviewed, or affirmed as required by this chapter, and all dismissals and discharges carried into execution under sentences by courts-martial following approval, review, or affirmation as required by this chapter, are final and conclusive. Orders publishing the proceedings of courts-martials and all action taken pursuant to those proceedings are binding upon all departments, courts, agencies, and officers of the United States, subject only to action upon a petition for a new trial as provided in section 873 of this title (article 73) and to action by the Secretary concerned as provided in section 874 of this title (article 74), and the authority of the President.
876a. ART. 76a. LEAVE REQUIRED TO BE TAKEN PENDING REVIEW OF CERTAIN COURT-MARTIAL CONVICTIONS
  1. Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary concerned, an accused who has been sentenced by a court-martial may be required to take leave pending completion of action under this subchapter if the sentence, as approved under section 860 of this title (article 60), includes an unsuspended dismissal or an unsuspended dishonorable or bad-conduct discharge. The accused may be required to begin such leave on the date on which the sentence is approved under section 860 of this title (article 60) or at any time after such date, and such leave may be continued until the date which action under this subchapter is completed or may be terminated at any earlier time.
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